VDC test kit slider
VDC test kit slider
sperti logo 1
Text size A A A
High contrast on off

Information on the latest vitamin D news and research.

Find out more information on deficiency, supplementation, sun exposure, and how vitamin D relates to your health.

Low vitamin D linked to frailty and mortality in older men

Research published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism reports that vitamin D deficiency is associated with frailty and all-cause mortality in older men.

The researchers, led by Yuen Wong, MBBS, were interested in examining the relationship between D deficiency, frailty and mortality in older men living in Australia.

The study included data from 4,200 men aged 70-88 years who were enrolled in the Health and Men cohort. This cohort began in 1996 and enrollees were followed through 2009. At baseline, the researchers looked at these men’s frailty scores and how and if they correlated with vitamin D levels at all. Frailty was assessed by the FRAIL scale which measures fatigue, resistance, ambulation, illness, and loss of weight. They also wanted to know if vitamin D levels and/or frailty were associated with mortality risk at all over the course of the 13 year study period.

Here’s what they found:

  • Mean vitamin D status was 27 ng/ml.
  • Participants with vitamin D levels greater than 48 ng/ml were younger in age and more likely to be physically active compared to men with levels < 48 ng/ml. The researchers did not mention how they chose 48 ng/ml as a cutoff here, though they did mention 65 men in the cohort had levels over 48 ng/ml and only 10 of these men supplemented.
  • Men with levels < 20 ng/ml were twice as likely to be frail in comparison to those with levels > 32 ng/ml. Additionally, men who were non-frail at baseline with low vitamin D levels had a 50% increased risk of becoming frail within 5 years.
  • Forty-eight percent of participants who were frail at baseline died during the study, while 23 % who were non-frail died. Men who died were also older, had more health complications, and had lower vitamin D levels than those who were living at the end of the study. The vitamin D status, mortality association only occurred at lower vitamin D levels (<20 ng/ml).

The authors conclude,

“…hypovitaminosis D is associated with prevalent frailty and predictive of incident frailty in older men. It is also predictive of all-cause mortality, independent of the baseline frailty status.”

While this isn’t the first study to examine vitamin D status, mortality, and frailty, it is interesting to see how the three relate to each other. The results suggest that vitamin D status predicts mortality independently of frailty.

The greatest limitation of the study was that participants were “self-selected,” which means they selected themselves to participate in the study. This could explain why vitamin D levels were higher than average, limiting the generalizability of the study results. Additionally, remember that although the study found a significant association, causality cannot be confirmed.

The authors call for large randomized controlled trials examining the effects of vitamin D supplementation on physical performance and frailty.


Wong YYE, et al. Low vitamin D status is an independent predictor of increased frailty and all-cause mortality in older men: the health in men study. J Clin Endocrin Metab, 2013.

  About: Kate Saley

Kate was the Community Coordinator for the Vitamin D Council between 2012-2013. She oversaw the Council’s social media, blog, newsletter and membership base. Kate is currently going to school for occupational therapy.

One Response to Low vitamin D linked to frailty and mortality in older men

  1. Magic says:

    There is NO DOUBT in my mind that vitamin D3 “makes you better and keeps you better.”

    I am at an age, almost 80 that I am losing lots of friends, Rapidly. These are people who explained to me that they would “check with their doctor.” Their doctor steered them away from such danger. The old stay in the house where you are safe theory……If you go out, cover up and slather that stuff on you just to make sure.

    One friend of mine told me life was a crapshoot. Nine years younger than me, he “crapped out” last year.

    I have a problem and that is sometimes I don’t have a chance to MAKE SURE that they read this website…or they don’t just because they are too busy. D3 works so much better when combined with other nutrients…….AND EXERCISE.

    I have the best tan of my life and take NO prescription meds.